The Mars Perseverance rover landed safely Thursday after a harrowing descent to the Red Planet and is already transmitting pictures.
"I’m safe on Mars. Perseverance will get you anywhere," NASA tweeted on behalf of the rover after it touched down just before 4 p.m. Eastern.
What You Need To Know
- NASA's Perseverance rover landed in the Jezero Crater on Mars
- The mission to try to find out if life ever existed on the Red Planet
- The goal is to send samples from Mars back to Earth
- JUMP TO: What we know about the mission ▼
- Mars Rover to Provide Learning Experience for Current, Future Scientists
- NASA's Perseverance Rover to Make Mars the Next Planet Heard From
- In-Depth: NASA's Mars Rover Perseverance Landing
The rover named Perseverance landed on a compact 5-mile-by-4-mile patch on the edge of an ancient river delta called the Jezero Crater. The rover will spend the next two years exploring the crater, which scientists believe was once a lake billions of years ago.
It's filled with cliffs, pits, sand dunes and fields of rocks. The once submerged terrain also could hold evidence of past life, all the more reason to gather samples at this spot for return to Earth 10 years from now.
“This is really the critical mission for Mars,” said University of Central Florida Assistant Professor Kerri Donaldson Hanna.
On Perseverance's belly is NASA's first helicopter to fly on another planet.
Ingenuity, as its called, is just a test to see how this technology works in the Martian sky.
“Certainly for future exploration, drones could be greatly helpful for carrying materials around the Martian surface, so you don't have to worry about carrying them with a bulky space suit on,” Donaldson Hanna said.
At the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests were excited at the possibilities.
“If it can come up with any evidence of life that's really cool and kind of puts into perspective for us in this world and the possibility that we're not alone,” said Matthew Day, who was visiting with his family from Colorado.
The landing marks the third visit to Mars in just over a week. Two spacecraft from the United Arab Emirates and China swung into orbit around Mars on successive days last week. All three missions lifted off in July to take advantage of the close alignment of Earth and Mars, traveling some 300 million miles in nearly seven months.
A Look at NASA’s Latest Mission:
NASA has nailed eight of nine landing attempts, making the U.S. the only country to achieve a successful touchdown. China hopes to become the second nation in late spring with its own life-seeking rover; its vessel entered orbit around Mars last week along with a United Arab Emirates spacecraft. The red planet's extremely thin atmosphere makes it hard to get down safely. Russia has piled up the most lander losses at Mars and moon Phobos, beginning in the early 1970s. The European Space Agency also has tried and failed.
Two NASA landers are still humming along: 2012′s Curiosity rover and 2018′s InSight. Launched last July, Perseverance will set down some 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers) away at Jezero Crater, descending by parachute, rocket engines and sky crane. The millions of lines of software code and hundreds of thousands of electric parts have to work with precision.
“There’s no go-backs. There’s no retries," deputy project manager Matt Wallace said Wednesday.
Toughest Landing Yet
NASA equipped the 1-ton Perseverance — a beefier version of Curiosity — with the latest landing tech to ace this touchdown. A new autopilot tool calculated the descending rover’s distance to the targeted location and release the massive parachute at the precise moment. Then another system will scan the surface, comparing observations with on-board maps. The rover could detour up to 2,000 feet (600 meters) while seeking somewhere safe, Neil Armstrong style.
It's almost landing day for @NASAPersevere. You can ride along virtually at each step using our 3D simulations that use real @NASA data:— NASA Mars (@NASAMars) February 17, 2021
Approaching Mars: https://t.co/oyGQYX8UHN
Landing sequence: https://t.co/wBCeiFP7cs
Landing site: https://t.co/vI6ns9sxEL#CountdownToMars pic.twitter.com/utPb6GulLk
Without these gizmos, Jezero Crater would be too risky to attempt. The six-wheeled Perseverance should be the best driver Mars has ever seen, with more autonomy and range than Curiosity.
“Percy’s got a new set of kicks," explained chief engineer Adam Steltzner, "and she is ready for trouble on this Martian surface with her new wheels.”
Looking for Signs of Life
Where there was water, there may have been life. That’s why NASA wants Perseverance snooping around Jezero Crater, once home to a lake fed by a river. It’s now bone dry, but 3.5 billion years ago, this Martian lake was as big and wet as Nevada and California’s Lake Tahoe. Perseverance will shoot lasers at rocks judged most likely to contain evidence of past microscopic life, analyzing the emitted vapor, and drill into the best candidates. A few dozen core samples — about a pound’s worth (one-half kilogram) of rock and dust — will be set aside in sealed titanium tubes for future pickup.
Scientists have wanted to get hold of Mars rocks ever since NASA’s Mariners provided the first close pictures a half-century ago. NASA is teaming up with the European Space Agency to do just that. The bold plan calls for a rover and return rocket to launch to Mars in 2026, to retrieve Perseverance’s stash of samples.
NASA expects to bring back the rocks as early as 2031, several years before the first astronauts might arrive on the scene. The rover’s super sterilized sample tubes are the cleanest components ever sent into space, according to NASA, to avoid any contaminating traces of Earth.
Speaking of clean, NASA’s Mars Mission Control has never been so spotless. Instead of passing around jars of peanuts right before Perseverance’s landing — a good luck tradition going back decades — masked flight controllers will get their own individual bags. It’s one of many COVID-19 precautions at California’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The landing team will be spread over multiple rooms, with NASA bigwigs and journalists watching remotely. Launched last July, the aptly named Perseverance bears a plaque honoring health care workers battling the virus over the past year.
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